Study questions (All topics)

  1. What are the different modes of viral transmission?
  2. What is the history behind discovering viruses? Name of the first virus discovered and of the discoverer?
  3. What was the purpose of Hershey-Chase experiment?
  4. Define clade? Define viromes?
  5. Explain Influenza Pandemic
  6. Explain AIDS epidemic
  7. Define zoonosis?
  8. Why are virus particles formed? Explain self-assembly
  9. What are the different structures of viruses. Give examples.
  10. What is Baltimore classification of viruses?
  11. Define syndromes
  12. What is the name of the first animal virus?
  13. What are the key steps of the viral replication cycle?
  14. Why RNA viruses have more mutations?
  15. Define an etiological agent. Give an example
  16. What are the tools that are used for Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections?
  17. How to detect HIV infection in the Lab?
  18. Why do we measure viral load?
  19. Why vertical flow laminar hood/(HEPA) filter is used in the Laboratory?
  20. Define CPE (cytopathic effect)
  21. What are the Common Methods Used to Study Viruses in the Research Laboratory?
  22. How many Biosafety level (BSL) are available to work with viruses?
  23. What are the Preferred Routes of Entry for viruses?
  24. What are the Mechanisms of Viral Spread or Pathogenesis?
  25. Give examples of viruses that can infect organs.
  26. What is a neurotropic virus?
  27. Viral infections and pregnancy
  28. Define Transplacental, perinatal, postnatal virus transmission
  29. Define acute infection, persistent infection, Chronic infection with continuous shedding of virus
  30. What are the factors affecting virus survival?
  31. Define localized viral infection versus systemic infection
  32. Define NK cells, dendritic cells, Macrophages?
  33. What are defensins, IFN, complement?
  34. Define the key players in the adaptive immunity
  35. Explain immunological memory, passive immunity
  36. Give an example of live, attenuated vaccine
  37. Give an example of recombinant vector vaccine, recombinant subunit vaccine & DNA vaccine
  38. What are vaccines and adjuvants?
  39. Define an etiological agent. Give an example
  40. Disease caused by the viruses? How to test for those viruses
  41. Define HIV-1 and HIV-2 and their mode of transmission, replication of the virus
  42. Anti-retroviral therapy ART?
  43. To test for HIV: ELISA, if the test is positive, confirmed using PCR
  44. Define reassortment and antigen drift
  45. Define CJD/ prion contaminated?
  46. What is PrPC?
  47. Define PrPres
  48. What is a viroid and how does it replicate?
  49. Define a plant virus
  50. What are the modes of transmission of those viruses?
  51. What is a bacteriophage? Life cycle?
  52. Biofilm? Lytic cycle, lysogenic cycle, temperate bacteriophage?
  53. What determines the (triangulation) T-number for an icosahedral virus? How can you detemine one? Why is it important in terms of Casper and Klug’s theory of quasi equivalence?
  54. What is a one-step growth curve? Why is it important for the study of viruses? Why is MOI important for this?
  55. What are the similarities and differences in structure between helical and icosahedral viruses? What are the structural similarities and differences between enveloped and naked viruses?
  56. What are the differences between theory and “reality” in terms of virus structure?
  57. How are RNA-viruses similar and how are they different in terms of a) genome replication, b) the decision between mRNA production and genome replication?
  58. What are the similarities and differences between Retroviral replication and other Retroid viruses? What are the similarities and differences between Retroviruses and RNA-virus replication.
  59. Why are different replication strategies used by different viruses?
  60. What are the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA virus replication? What are the similarities and differences between cellular and viral DNA replication?