Viruses need host cells to replicate, and the cultivation of viruses involves providing them with suitable conditions so they can infect these host cells and reproduce. This can be done either in vitro (outside a living organism) or in vivo (within a living organism).

In vitro cultivation of viruses In vivo cultivation of viruses:
Typically takes place in cell or tissue cultures where virus infects the cells in the culture and uses the cellular machinery to reproduce. Typically involves inoculating a living organism, such as a chicken embryo or a laboratory animal like mice, guinea pigs, or non-human primates, with the virus.
It’s more cost-effective and practical for large-scale virus production. The host cells can be easily controlled and manipulated. This method replicates the complex interactions between the virus, the host, and the host’s immune system. Therefore, it’s more reflective of natural conditions.
Typically, less time-consuming, expensive, and subject to ethical regulations. Typically, more time-consuming, expensive, and subject to ethical regulations.
Cell cultures allow for rapid and precise quantification of the viral load. It can be challenging to quantify the exact viral load within a living organism.
Specific cell types can be selected to replicate specific viruses, but some viruses may not grow in any available cell culture system. Some viruses may not be able to grow in available animal models, or they may cause different disease patterns in animals compared to humans.



-Both systems allow for the study of viral pathogenesis, immune responses, and efficacy of antiviral compounds or vaccines.

-In both methods, successful cultivation of a virus depends on the virus type, the chosen host system, and the specific conditions of the environment, including temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.


Advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo methods for cultivation of viruses

Advantages of in vitro cultivation of viruses include growth in controlled environment, quick and more cost-effective, easier to quantify, wide range of applications, reduce the need for animal testing and addressing some ethical concerns. The limitations of in vitro cultivation of viruses include, host specificity of cell lines, failure of cell cultures to reproduce the full range of interactions between the virus, the host, and the host’s immune system, risk of genetic drift and contamination risk.

Advantages of in vivo cultivation of viruses include presence of complex interactions between the virus and the host’s immune system allowing development of applicable models, testing therapeutic interventions and studying natural infection cycles. The limitations of in vivo cultivation of viruses include research ethical concerns and animal welfare with regard to the use of animals, costly and time-consuming, response difference between species, difficult in quantifying the number of viral particles in a living organism.