Molecular Epidemiology of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in the Context of Transboundary Animal Movement in the Far North Region of Cameroon
Authors: Bertram MR (1)(2), Bravo de Rueda C (1)(2), Garabed R (3), Dickmu Jumbo S (4), Moritz M (5), Pauszek S (1), Abdoulkadiri S (4), Rodriguez LL (1), Arzt J (1).
- Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC), Greenport, NY, United States.
- Research Participation Program, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN, United States.
- Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
- Laboratoire National Vétérinaire (LANAVET), Garoua, Cameroon.
- Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.
Transboundary movement of animals is an important mechanism for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spread in endemic regions, such as Cameroon. Several transboundary animal trade routes cross the Far North Region of Cameroon, and cattle moved on foot along these routes often come in contact with native (sedentary and transhumant) herds. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of transboundary trade cattle in the epidemiology of FMDV in the Far North Region of Cameroon. A total of 582 oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) samples were
collected from asymptomatic transboundary trade cattle at official border check points and 57 vesicle epithelial tissues were collected from clinically affected native cattle in the Far North Region of Cameroon during 2010-2014. Viral protein1 (VP1) coding sequences were obtained from 6 OPF samples from transboundary cattle (4 serotype O, 2 serotype SAT2) and 19 epithelial tissue samples from native cattle (7 serotype O, 3 serotype SAT2, 9 serotype A). FMDV serotype O viruses belonged to two topotypes (East Africa-3 and West Africa), and phylogenetic analyses suggested a pattern of continuous transmission in the region. Serotype SAT2 viruses belonged to a single topotype (VII), and phylogenetic analysis suggested a pattern of repeated introductions of different SAT2 lineages in the region. Serotype A viruses belonged to topotype AFRICA/G-IV,and the pattern of transmission was unclear. Spearman rank correlation analysis of VP1 coding sequences obtained in this study from transboundary and native cattle showed a positive correlation between genetic distance and time for serotype O (ρ = 0.71, p = 0.003) and between genetic distance and geographic distance for serotype SAT2 (ρ = 0.54, p = 0.1). These data suggest that transboundary trade cattle participate in the transmission of FMDV in the Far North Region of Cameroon, however the dynamics and direction of transmission could not be determined in this study. Results of this study contribute to the understanding of transboundary FMDV epidemiology in Central Africa and will help to inform control programs in Cameroon and in the region.